The results of the study reveal that peak meat consumption may have been reached in several countries. However, there is also evidence of a continued increase in consumption in many emerging economy countries. The researchers said they found evidence of this when they attempted to link per capita gross domestic product (GDP) to per capita meat consumption. They found a direct link between increased consumption and increased wealth in emerging economies, but no relationship in higher income countries.
Between 2000 and 2019, there were major changes in meat consumption across the world. In 2019, poultry was the most popular meat globally, followed by pork, beef, then mutton and goat.
In most of the countries surveyed (26 of 35), total per capita meat consumption increased significantly over time, with the most substantial increases seen in Russia, Vietnam and Peru.
According to the study, in South American countries where meat consumption was relatively high in 2000, annual increases of more than 1 kg per capita were observed. The countries mentioned in the study are Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Colombia.
Overall declines in total meat consumption were observed in six countries. The most notable reductions were observed in New Zealand and Paraguay.
The study found that global beef consumption between 2000 and 2019 fell 3.9%, from 22.8% to 18.9%. Beef consumption increased only in Ethiopia, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Vietnam. There has been no change in consumption over the years recorded in China, Indonesia, Pakistan and the UK.
Per capita pork consumption has increased slightly in China and substantially in Vietnam. In total, 19 countries experienced an increase in per capita pork consumption, while in 7 countries consumption decreased.
In countries with declining trends in per capita pork consumption, the change was small, except in Canada where a substantial decline was recorded from 22.6 kg / capita in 2000 to 16.3 kg / inhabitant in 2019.
The contribution of pork to total world meat consumption was lower in 2019 than in 2000 (32.6% vs. 38.6%). In Vietnam and China, pork accounted for two-thirds of total per capita meat consumption in 2000, but in 2019, its contribution was only half of total meat consumption. Although the report does not mention African swine fever as a cause, it is likely that the decrease in supply is the cause of the decrease.
On a per capita basis, the study found that poultry consumption more than doubled in 13 countries between recorded years. Almost all of the countries surveyed (30 out of 35) increased their consumption between 2000 and 2019. Global poultry consumption per capita was 14.8 kg in 2019, up from 9.8 kg in 2000.